Presentation: Keeping our hospitals safe from exotic infections
Gwendolyn L. Gilbert, Keeping our hospitals safe from exotic infections, Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control 2018 Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 19–21 November 2018.
Professor Lyn Gilbert presented at the Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control 2018 Conference in Brisbane in November 2018. Her presentation was in a session called “New and Old – Challenges in Infection Prevention and Control”.
People who travel, for whatever reason, often develop infection. It may originate from exposure to an exotic, rare (in Australia), or (even) previously unknown pathogen in an Asian, African, Middle Eastern or South American wet market, luxury resort, boutique private hospital, village, city or rain forest. But it is more likely acquired in a crowded European shopping mall, an airport or the aeroplane on the way home. Whatever the source, the symptoms are usually nonspecific: diarrhoea, cough, headache, myalgia, rash and/or fever.
Most illnesses are mild and self-limiting; a minority need medical attention, even fewer need hospital admission. Some present within a few days of return, others weeks or months later; sometimes they first present for an unrelated condition.
The challenge, especially in a hospital setting, is to recognise the patient with the potential to transmit a significant exotic pathogen, to a healthcare worker or patient, and start a hospital or community outbreak. Plenty of recent examples show that even the best hospitals in high-income countries do not always meet the challenge: SARS, Toronto; Ebola, Dallas; MERS, Seoul; Clostridium difficile 027, Melbourne (among others) are almost certainly the very pointy tip of the iceberg. How can we ensure that the risk and potential consequences of transmission are assessed and mitigated simultaneously with – or even before – the initial clinical assessment, resuscitation and investigation? If the risk is significant it will be too late when a diagnosis is confirmed and high-level transmission-based precautions implemented. Standard precautions, properly observed, should do the trick.