Divergent human origin influenza viruses detected in Australian swine populations
Frank YK Wong, Celeste Donato, Yi-Mo Deng, Don Teng, Naomi Komadina, Chantal Baas, Joyanta Modak, Mark O’Dea, David W Smith, Paul V Effler, Julie Cooke, Kelly R Davies, Aeron Hurt, Nina Kung, Avram Levy, Richmond Loh, Songhua Shan, Mustaghfira W Shinwari, Vittoria Stevens, Joanne Taylor, David T Williams, James Watson, Debbie Eagles, Sam McCullough, Ian G Barr and Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran.
This paper describes the evolutionary origins and antigenic properties of influenza A viruses isolated from two separate Australian swine populations from 2012 to 2016, showing that these viruses are distinct from each other and from those isolated from swine globally. Whole-genome sequencing of virus isolates revealed a high genotypic diversity that had been generated exclusively through the introduction and establishment of human influenza viruses that circulated in past seasons. We detected six reassortants with gene segments derived from human H1N1/H1N1pdm09 and various human H3N2 viruses that circulated during various periods since 1968. We also found that these swine viruses were not related to swine viruses collected elsewhere, indicating independent circulation. The detection of unique lineages and genotypes in Australia suggests that isolated swine populations that are sufficiently large can sustain influenza virus for extensive periods; we show direct evidence of a sustained transmission for at least 4 years between 2012 and 2016.