Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19


Irani Thevarajan, Thi HO Nguyen, Marios Koutsakos, Julian Druce, Leon Caly, Carolien E van de Sandt, Xiaoxiao Jia, Suellen Nicholson, Mike Catton, Benjamin Cowie, Steven Tong, Sharon Lewin, Katherine Kedzierska

Nature Medicine, 2020, vol. 26, pages 453–455. DOI:

We report the kinetics of immune responses in relation to clinical and virological features of a patient with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that required hospitalization. Increased antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), follicular helper T cells (TFH cells), activated CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies that bound the COVID-19-causing coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 were detected in blood before symptomatic recovery. These immunological changes persisted for at least 7 d following full resolution of symptoms.